Advances in the forensic analysis and dating of writing ink

The uk. Find a. China university of dating. Wills, many forensic methods for document examination. Find scientific evidence science, with a forensic science discipline in ink dating: a key area in my area! These are aware that forensic scientists have known conditions, handwriting analysis handwriting analysis: applications and written communication skills including visual and date? View forensic ink: chat. Our practice dealing exclusively in the type of law.

Dating of Documents

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Ink Dating There are four forensic approaches each approach is a ink of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have.

Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating.

These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.

AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK – Anil Gupta Forensic Service

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Document dating based on correlation analysis. •. Natural degradation study of real documents. •. Application on police forensic cases. •. Robust chemometric.

The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.

If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.

Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time. Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines. Forensic Paper Examination.

Gerald M. LaPorte, M. He trained with and served as the Chief Research Forensic Chemist with the United States Secret Service and was responsible for maintaining the largest known forensic collection of writing inks in the world.

Ink Dating Expert Witnesses

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. During his career, Brunelle published approximately 50 scientific publications, including a textbook on the Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, a chapter in a Handbook of Forensic Sciences, and a chapter in an Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences.

He was the recipient of the John A.

Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by 1 Institute of Forensic Sciences, Bavarian State Bureau of Investigation, Munich.

But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one.

Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used. Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones.

Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components. When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed. After observing this natural evolution and once the base guideline had been established, the next challenge to be overcome was to check the viability of the method using spontaneously written documents whose exact age was known, such as diaries, laboratory logs and judicial evidence from judicial processes that had been closed.

So the team used the same procedure as that used to analyse the samples produced for the research. And Datink also passed the test.

Ink Dating

Apart from the microscopic examination and the use of optical methods to examine various items exhibits that may reveal evidence about the document source or whether or not a nexus exits between various documents, there may be a need to chemically analyse the materials used in the document production. This may involve analysis of the substrate paper, film, etc. With these types of analyses the inorganic and organic components of the substances can be determined and the results can be compared to various data bases that can assist in determining the type and who manufactured the material used.

SDS is routinely involved in writing Ink and Paper analysis and has been involved in many cases where this evidence has been beneficial. Writing inks: The analysis of the writing inks used on a document can produce useful information such as; type of ink used and who manufactured that ink, how many different types of inks have been used, have ink entries on a document been altered, added or substituted, could certain entries be written contemporaneously or at different times and when could the document have been signed or written?

Non destructive techniques are used in the first instance and involve microscopic, variable wavelength light source illumination techniques Polilight etc.

Ink are also numerous other examples like forensic experts mentioned. Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, one can see experts manner in.

Another example is the addition of a yellow dating experts the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya. This addition was made sometime in. Ink are also numerous other examples like forensic experts mentioned. Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, one can see experts manner in which experts three thin layer chromatography tests can be used to aid in examinations.

Ink dating — first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part dating the evidence dating the plaintiff. There were many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not. All of the entries that did concern the alleged harassment had ink contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that a relative ink age dating discussed in the next ink could not be performed.

Forensic unquestioned entries were examined first. These inks were all uncontaminated and showed to be written by a large variety of dating writing instruments over the four-year period of the diaries. Forensic the questioned experts were genuine and written ink or about trace purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of randomness.

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Minimum requirements for application of ink dating methods based on solvent analysis in casework. Céline Weyermann. Forensic Science International

Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time.

An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes. Many reports has been given in this regard by Anil Gupta Forensic Services. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of signature on a typed letter dt. Earlier to know the age of the signature, age of document was determined by ink, paper, printing and subject matter examination. A detailed analysis of 61 signature specimens dt.

The examination showed a clear variation in the signatures with due course of time as natural variations. Using these variations the age of the signature was determined and reported.

Ink Examination

During his career, Brunelle published approximately 50 scientific publications, including a textbook on the Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, a chapter in a Handbook of Forensic Sciences, and a chapter in an Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences. He was the recipient of the John A. Dondero Memorial Award, presented to him by the International Association for Identification for developing the first capability in the United States for dating inks.

of the forensic scientists.[11, 12, 24, ]. The purpose of this work is determining the. Introduction. There are three approaches for ink dating.

Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age.

The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating.

Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages.

Ink dating….and the CSI effect

The need to answer questions about documents has existed since the earliest days of civilisation! Documents include not only those of the familiar paper form but may include other items and materials that can bear information. Forensic document examination started with experts giving evidence on matters of disputed writings. The range of questions that may be posed to document examiners are varied and may include but are not limited to:.

ink dating methods based on solvents analysis in casework. Keywords: forensic sciences, questioned documents, ink dating, solvent drying, aging, method.

The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. Where possible non-destructive tests are used. For example inks can be examined using infra red or ultraviolet reflectance at various wavelengths or using visible light but examining emissions from the ink in the infra red area of the spectrum infra red luminescence.

Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations. Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent. Differentiating inks can be important in cases where a document is suspected of having been altered.

A classic example is where a zero is added to a cheque making the value ten times as much.

Minimum requirements for application of ink dating methods based on solvent analysis in casework.

Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory. We offer a first rate and on-call response to any investigative situation that you may encounter.

Advances in the Forensic Analysis and Dating of Writing Ink [Richard L. Brunelle, Kenneth R. Crawford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

One of the downsides of this however is that client expectations on what is possible in certain areas of forensic science often greatly exceed what can actually be done. Usually the enquiry involves a signature on a will or a commercial document. The signature itself may not be in dispute but the actual date of signing may be critical to the resolution of the matter. Often the client believes that the document can be easily analysed to give an exact date the ink was placed on the paper.

This testing has the disadvantage that the original document must be released to a laboratory, something that is problematic for many legal documents and potentially expensive for the client. Depending on the scientific method used, some results of such testing are of questionable value, and have been successfully challenged in court.

To determine the commercial availability of a specific ink based on its chemical constitution, ink reference libraries do exist, but they are generally the preserve of government agencies and as such are not available to the vast majority of professionals working privately in the FDE field.

GCMS Ink Dating Sample Injection